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Nicomedia, follis, Costantius Gallus, Fel Temp Reparatio
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Hey all. Got these mixed coins and need some help identifying them. Any help would be appreciated. Unsure of the weight.
fig. 1
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Rome, 4.1.2024
I report below the significant elements regarding the figure coin:

Æ31, (15.3.351-6.11.355) A. D.2, mint of Nicomedia, RIC VIII 97 (pag. 479), rarity index "C"

Summary description (parts of the legend that are worn or otherwise no longer legible are indicated in red):
D. DN FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES3. Bust of Constantius Gallus, bareheaded, draped, cuirassed, right.
R. FEL TEMP REPARATIO4. Soldier, helmeted, draped, cuirassed, advancing left, spearing fallen horseman with right hand and wearing shield on left arm; shield on ground to right; horseman wearing cap, facing soldier, extending right arm. SMN∈5 in exergue.

A search on the web for coins of the figure typology yielded the following results:

  1. RIC VIII Nicomedia 97 Descrizione del tipo Arco cronologico: AD 351 - AD 355 Tecnica di produzione: Coniato Nominale: AE3 Materiale: Biglione (uncertain) Materiale: Bronzo (uncertain) Autorità emittente: Costanzo II Geografico Zecca: Nicomedia Regione: Bitinia Dritto Legenda: D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES Tipo: Bust of Constantius Gallus, bareheaded, draped, cuirassed, right. Ritratto: Costanzo Gallo. Rovescio Legenda: FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO Tipo: Soldier, helmeted, draped, cuirassed, advancing left, spearing fallen horseman with right hand and wearing shield on left arm; shield on ground to right; horseman wearing cap, facing soldier, extending right arm. MintMark: -/-//SMN∈. Bronze AE3 of Constantius II, Nicomedia, AD 351 - AD 355. 1944.100.21499. Collezione American Numismatic Society. Asse 6. Diametro (in mm) 15.5 Peso (in g) 2.76.
  2. Auction information Lot 1536 Bidding Price realized 13€ 4 bids. Starting price 10€. Constantius Gallus (333-337) AE Nicomedia Description: Constantius Gallus (333-337) AE (Bronze, 2.59g, 17mm) Nicomedia. Obv: D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Bust of Constantius Gallus, bareheaded, draped, cuirassed, right. Ref: FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO / SMNS, Soldier, helmeted, draped, cuirassed, advancing left, spearing fallen horseman with right hand and wearing shield on left arm; shield on ground to right; horseman wearing cap, facing soldier, extending right arm. Ref: RIC VIII Nicomedia 97.
  3. Lot 1309 Price: 50 CHF Lot 1309 Constantius Gallus, Caesar, 351-354. Follis (Bronze, 17mm, 2.18g, 12h), struck under Constantius II, Nicomedia, Δ = 4th officina, 351-354. D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius Gallus to right. Rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO / SMNΔ Soldier standing left, holding shield on left arm and spearing fallen enemy, who is beardless looking back at soldier and extends arm. LRBC 2310. RIC 97. shallow pit on back of head, minor surface roughness, otherwise, good very fine. Current Status Online bidding closes: 4 Oct 2021, 01:54:30 CEST. Current Date & Time: 4 Jan 2024, 09:29:05 CET. Remaining Time: Closed. Hammer Price: 50 CHF by banderas (1 bid).
  4. Roman Empire AE3 351-354 AD Constantius Gallus (351-354), Nicomedia, RIC 97, aVF SellerHollandia Numismatics Netherlands 4 804 ratings, 100 % Positive (last 24 months) Price 23,00 EUR. Quantity 1 Grade: aVF | Abbreviations copper | weight 2,61g | Ø 16mm | die-axe 3 o’clock. Obv. [D] N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev. FEL TEMP RE – PARATIO, soldier standing left, holding shield, spearing a fallen horseman, mintmark SMNΓ in exergue. RIC VIII 97. about Very Fine.
  5. 175 - Constantius Gallus - AE3/4 - RIC VIII Nicomedia 97. Obv:– DN FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Bare, bust draped and cuirassed right. Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is bare headed, reaching back towards the emperor (Rider with hair straight up, no beard, reaching (hair type not in RIC). Minted in Nicomedia (//SMN Delta), Reference:– RIC VIII Nicomedia 97 var (hairstyle/headwear). Ex Lanz. Ex Kunker 288, ex. Collection Dr. Rainer Pudill 3,13g. 16.55mm.
  6. ONLINE AUCTION 9 LOT 795m 31 Oct 2023 End pre bids: 10/31/2023, 10:00 AM CET. Starting price: 10 EUR. Estimate: 60 EUR. Result: not sold. Lot 795. CONSTANTIUS GALLUS (351-354 AD). AE Follis, as caesar, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Nicomedia mint, XF! RIC 97. Size: 17mm. Weight: 2.3g.
  7. Obverse Bust of Constantius Gallus, bareheaded, draped, cuirassed, right. Lettering: D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES. Reverse Soldier, helmeted, draped, cuirassed, advancing left, spearing fallen horseman with right hand and wearing shield on left arm; shield on ground to right; horseman wearing cap, facing soldier, extending right arm. Mintmark and officina in exergue. Lettering: FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO. Mint SMN Nicomedia, Bithynia, modern-day İzmit, Turkey. Roman Empire (Rome) Constantius II (337-361) Standard circulation coin 351-355. Nummus (1⁄7200). Currency Solidus, Reform of Constantine (AD 310/324 – 395). Bronze 2.34g. 16.87mm. Round (irregular).
  8. Constantius Gallus 351-354 n. Chr. Freiburg, Seminar für Alte Geschichte der Universität Nomisma NDP Tresor Inventar nummer 09554 Vorderseite D N FL CL [CON]STANTIVS NOB CAES. Drapierte Panzerbüste des Constantius Gallus in der Brustansicht nach r. Rückseite FEL TEMP RE-PARA[TIO] // SMNA. Soldat mit Helm sticht nach l. mit einem Speer in der r. Hand auf einen fallenden Reiter ein. Er hält einen Schild im l. Arm. Darunter ein Schild. Der Reiter fällt nach l., den Kopf nach r. gewandt. Er hebt den r.Arm. Dargestellte/r Constantius Gallus Münzherr Constantius II. Datierung 351-354 n. Chr. Römische Spätantike Nominal Nummusteil stück Bronze Nomisma NDP; 2,07g; 16mm; 6h. Herstellung geprägt nomisma NDP. Literatur RIC VIII Nr. 97 (Nicomedia, 15. März 351-Winter 354 n. Chr.); LRBC Nr. 2310 (Nicomedia, 351-354 n. Chr.). Webportale
  9. Constantius Gallus 351-354 n. Chr. Eichstätt, Lehrstuhl für Alte Geschichte der Katholischen Universität Nomisma NDP Tresor Inventory no 310 Obverse D N FL CL CON[STAN-TIVS] NOB CAES. Büste des Constantinus Gallus barhäuptig mit Mantel und Rüstung n.r. Reverse FEL TEMP RE[PARATIO] // SMNS. Behelmter Soldat n.l., Schild am l. Arm, r. Fuß auf einem Schild, einen gestürzten bartlosen Reiter mit Mütze aufspießend; Der Reiter den Soldaten anblickend und ihm den Arm entgegenstreckend. Sitter Constantius Gallus Ancient Ruler's issue NDP Authority Constantius II Date 351-354 n. Chr. Denomination Aes 3nomisma NDP Bronze Nomisma NDP; 2,62g; 17mm; 11h. Production struck nomisma NDP. Mint Nicomedia (Izmit) Nomisma NDP. Region Bithynien Nomisma NDP. Country Turkey NDP. Publications RIC VIII Nicomedia 97. Web Portals Object number ID310 Permalink
I conclude by noting that general and style characteristics of the coin do not differ from those of period coins of the same type. Physical characteristics are lacking, which is why a comparative examination with authentic coins of the period is not possible. In the present state of conservation, if authentic, the coin is worth, in my opinion, about €20.

Best regards.
Giulio De Florio



(1) Æ3 follis. I collect in the table below the physical characteristics of the coins of the figure type from the links above:

References: Weight (g) Diameter (mm) Die axis (h)
Link1 2,76 15,5 -
Link2 2,59 17 -
Link3 2,18 17 12
Link4 2,61 16 3
Link5 3,13 16,55 -
Link6 2,3 17 -
Link7 2,34 16,87 -
Link8 2,07 16 6
Link9 2,62 17 11
Since the physical characteristics of the sample under examination are not available, it will not be possible to conduct a comparative examination with the authentic coins of the period.
(2) (15.3.351-6.11.355), time span between the rise of Constantius Gallus as Caesar and that of Julian.
(3) DN FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES (Dominvs Noster FLavius CLaudius CONSTANTIVS NOBilis Caesar). The story of Constantius Gallus is interesting. His grandfather, the emperor Constantius Chlorus, had had six children by his legitimate wife Theodora, among them Delmazius senior and Julius Constantius, father of Constantius Gallus and several years earlier had had a son named Constantine by Helena, a woman of humble origins with whom he had lived in concubinage before marriage (as was the custom in those days when differences in social class did not allow legal union). On the death of Constantius Chlorus in 306, it was Constantine, then 24 years old, who, by reason of age and experience (Theodora's children were too young), took over his father's inheritance. Theodora's family thus lived in Constantine's shadow. Having become emperor, Constantine divided the responsibilities of government with his three sons: Constantine Caesar had Spain, Gaul and Britain, Constans Italy, Illyria and Africa and Constantius the Asian provinces and Egypt, while Constantine kept the Balkan peninsula for himself. Before his death in 337, Constantine mentioned in his will the relatives of Theodora's descendants, Delmatius jr and
Hannibalianus, sons of his half-brother Delmatius senior, and left them the Balkan peninsula and the government of Armenia and the Pontus coast respectively. This was the cause of their misfortune: on hearing the news of Constantine's death, his son Constantius rushed to Constantinople where he organised the massacre of Theodora's descendants. Two of Constantine's half-brothers, Delmatius senior and Julius Constantius, father of Constantius Gallus, and seven nephews, including Delmatius jr. and Hannibalianus were slaughtered. Saved from the massacre were 12-year-old Gallus and his half-brother Julian (the future emperor Julian, later called the Apostate), who was six years old at the time.The cruel and suspicious Constantius spared their lives but relegated them to two different cities in Asia Minor. The boys were surrounded by Christian teachers, who spied on their slightest movements, under the guidance of Eusebius, the Arian bishop of Nicomedia. At a time of turmoil in the western empire, Constantius, feeling the need to have a symbolic figure in the East to represent the imperial family, summoned Gallus, who was the eldest of the surviving cousins, to court, gave him his sister Constantine as his bride and made him Caesar at Sirmium, on 15 March 351. Gallus and the new praetorian prefect of the East, Thalassius, with no time in between, left for the East, and settled in Antioch in mid-May, at a time when the meteorological or astronomical phenomenon of the heavenly cross was rumoured, or at least believed to be so. As the situation on the Persian border remained fairly calm, Gallus had a relatively easy time of it. The agitations of the Isaurians and Jews, especially the latter, were repressed with great brutality. What is certain is that his rule was characterised by great irresponsibility and violence, culminating in the instigation of the lynching of the prefect Domitian and the quaestor Montius. After this event Gallus was recalled, officially to be transferred to Gaul, but in reality to be deprived of his prerogatives and tried in Flanona, an island off the east coast of Istria, where he was beheaded towards the end of 354.
(4) FEL TEMP REPARATIO (FELix or FELIcium TEMPorum REPARATIO). On the FEL TEMP REPARATIO (FTR for short) Dough Smith (see has written an interesting article from which I will draw for the brief summary that follows. The monetary reform of 348 by Constans and Constantius II brought three silvered bronze nominals into circulation of the following types, all bearing the reverse legend FTR:
Nominals Types
major (biglion - 3% silver) - large Æ3 fallen horseman (favourite reverse theme of Constantius II)
Galea piloted by Victory (Constans favourite reverse theme because it probably recalled Constans' landing in Britain in 342)
intermediate - small Æ2 - busts to left
Barbarian brought out of the hut (Constans favourite reverse theme perhaps because it enhanced the theme of recolonisation of conquered territories)
Sovereign with two prisoners' (preferred reverse theme of Constantius II)
minor Æ3 Phoenix
With Constans death, the 'fallen horseman' remained the only type of FTR in circulation. During its 13 years of life, the 'fallen horseman' underwent many changes in weight and size. The earliest coins were what collectors refer to as
Æ2 coins, as they measured 21÷23mm in diameter; the latest issues went down to 16mm, not even qualifying as Æ3. These later coins are often called Æ3/Æ4 to indicate that they lie in the borderline band between Æ3 and Æ4. The weight also gradually decreased as did the already low silver content.
The '
fallen horseman' was roughly coined in four variants. All had in common the presence of a knight mortally wounded by a lance The first shows the knight kneeling on the ground in front of the horse. The second shows him sitting on the ground in front of the horse.The third, which is the one relevant to the figure coin, Horseman on horse turning and reaching back toward the soldier. The last, sees him crashing to the ground hugging the horse's neck.
As Dough Smith rightly observes, the 'fallen horseman' is a typical collector's coin because it meets three criteria:
  • Affordability, as no 'fallen horseman' coin would be terribly expensive; ranging from the worst specimens at less than a dollar to the truly perfect ones costing $100.
  • Varieties, as within each of the four types illustrated above, numerous variations can be observed to satisfy the fussiness of the specialised collector.
  • Expandability, because starting with the 'fallen horseman' one can expand to all the themes of the FEL TEMP REPARATIO and then to all the Constantinian era coins.
(5) SMN∈ is the mint mark, composed of the letters
SM (Sacra Moneta), the letter N (mint indicative, short for Nicomedia in Asia Minor, see link) and the workshop indicative (fifth of six workshops active in the mint at the time).
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